1866 Stamp Act: A U.S. law implemented in 1866 that introduced a range of new tax measures, including the requirement for revenue stamps to demonstrate payment of taxes on documents and commodities as a post-Civil War revenue measure.
1875 Law Repeal: Refers to the specific repeal of tax laws enacted during and after the Civil War, including the abolishment of many stamp taxes, which directly influenced the usage and types of revenue stamps issued.
1905 Stamp Legislation: Comprehensive legislation passed in 1905 which updated the tax code, including the provisions for the use of revenue stamps to document and collect taxes on various goods and transactions.
1907 Stamp Act: Legislation passed in 1907 that further refined and imposed taxes that required the use of revenue stamps to document the payment of these taxes, particularly affecting luxury goods and certain business transactions.
19th Century U.S. Stamps: Refers to postage and revenue stamps issued by the U.S. government throughout the 19th century, encompassing a wide variety of designs and uses, highlighting economic and postal developments.
Almanac: An annual publication listing a calendar of events, including astronomical data and weather forecasts, vital for daily planning in pre-digital eras.
American Bank Note Company: An engraving company established in the 19th century that was contracted by the U.S. government to print a variety of secure documents including currency and revenue stamps, known for their intricate designs and anti-counterfeiting features.
Breach of Contract: The failure of a party to fulfill their obligations under a contract without a lawful excuse, which can lead to legal consequences such as financial damages or specific performance.
Broadside: A large sheet of paper printed on one side only, historically used to communicate official announcements or advertisements.
Cartography: The art and science of mapmaking. Collectible ephemera in this category includes antique maps and atlases.
Case Studies: Detailed examinations of individual patients or groups of patients to investigate symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes.
Chromolithography: A method for making multi-color prints, popular in the 19th century, used for producing decorative posters, labels, and advertisements.
Cinderella Stamp: A stamp-like label that is not issued for postal duties by an official government or postal administration, such as promotional or commemorative labels.
Clinical Practice: The application of medical knowledge and skills to diagnose, treat, and prevent illness in patients.
Collectible Revenue Stamps: Revenue stamps that have become highly valued by collectors due to their historical context, rarity, and unique designs, spanning various periods and tax laws.
Conflicts of Interest: Situations in which individuals or organizations may be influenced by personal, financial, or professional considerations that could compromise their objectivity or integrity.
Damages (Legal): Monetary compensation awarded by a court to compensate a party for losses or injuries suffered as a result of another party's breach of duty or legal obligation.
Die Cut: A process of cutting shapes from paper or card using a die, often used for decorative ephemera like Victorian cards.
Digital Age: The era characterized by the widespread use of digital technologies, including the internet and electronic publishing.
Early 20th Century Fiscal Documents: Official documents from the early 1900s that required the use of revenue stamps as legal proof of tax payment, including business licenses, excise taxes, and legal documents.
Editorial Policies: Guidelines established by a journal's editorial board to govern the selection, review, and publication of articles.
Empirical Evidence: Information gathered from observation or experimentation that is systematically analyzed to support or refute hypotheses.
Ephemera: Transient printed materials, often intended for a single use, such as tickets, pamphlets, posters, and postcards, which have historical, collectible, or informational value.
Ephemeron: A single piece of ephemera, typically rare and highly valued for its unique historical context.
Ethical Considerations: Moral principles and values that guide decisions and actions in the practice of medicine and medical research.
Ex Libris: A bookplate used to indicate the owner of a book. It is a form of ephemera often collected for its artistic and historical significance.
Fashion Plate (1800s): A fashion plate is a printed illustration demonstrating the prevailing styles of clothing and accessories during a specific period. In the 1800s, these plates were typically found in women's magazines and were used as a guide for dressmaking or shopping. Fashion plates depicted everything from everyday attire to more formal garments, showcasing detailed designs, fabric patterns, and color choices. They were often hand-colored and served not only as a reflection of current fashion trends but also as a form of artistic expression and social communication within the era.
Fiscal Stamps: Stamps used specifically to indicate the payment of taxes or duties on goods, services, and legal documents, as part of governmental fiscal policy.
Incunabula: Early printed materials, particularly those printed before 1501. These items are among the earliest examples of print ephemera.
Indemnity: The principle that a party should be compensated for any losses or damages incurred, typically covered under a surety bond to protect against financial loss due to the principal's failure to fulfill obligations.
Internal Revenue Service (IRS): The U.S. government agency established in 1862 responsible for tax collection and enforcement of the Internal Revenue Code, which includes the administration of revenue stamps used in tax collection.
Legal Liability: The obligation to bear the consequences of violating a law or legal duty, which may include compensating others for harm or damage caused.
Lithography: A printing process based on the repulsion of oil and water, used for producing posters, maps, and artist prints in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Manuscript: A document written by hand, not printed; manuscripts can include personal letters, diaries, or original drafts of published works.
Medical Breakthroughs: Significant discoveries or advancements that have a profound impact on medical science and patient care.
Medical Literature: Published writings that report on research, clinical studies, and advancements in the field of medicine.
Open Access: The practice of making scholarly research freely available to the public, without restrictions on access or use.
Pamphlet: A small booklet or leaflet containing information or arguments about a single subject, often ephemeral in nature due to its temporary relevance.
Peer Reviewed: A process by which articles submitted for publication are evaluated by experts in the field before being accepted for publication.
Perforated Revenue Stamps: Revenue stamps that are mechanically perforated with holes to facilitate easy separation and use, marking a technological advancement in stamp production that began in the mid-19th century.
Performance Bond: A type of surety bond where the surety guarantees satisfactory completion of a project or contract by the principal according to the agreed terms.
Pharmacology: The branch of medicine concerned with the study of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Philately: The study and collection of stamps and postal history, often an integral part of ephemera collecting.
Principal: The party in a surety bond agreement who has the primary obligation to perform a contractual duty or obligation.
Programme: A printed schedule of the events occurring at a performance, sporting event, or other entertainment, collected for its connection to specific historical events or figures.
Provenance: The history of ownership of a particular item of ephemera, tracing its origin and any hands it has passed through before coming into a collection.
Revenue Stamp Design: The design aspects of revenue stamps which include specific motifs, denominations, and security features intended to prevent forgery and ensure the stamps’ validity.
Revenue Stamps: Stamps issued by a government to certify payment of taxes on various goods, services, and documents, which were mandatory for legal validation in many transactions.
Scrapbook: A book containing a collection of ephemera such as photographs, printed media, and artwork, assembled by an individual for personal interest.
Sheet Music: Printed music for singing and playing instruments, often collected for its cover art as well as its musical content.
Stamp Collecting: The hobby or practice of collecting stamps from postal and fiscal authorities, which includes categorizing, preserving, and studying stamps for their historical value and artistic merit.
Surety Bond: A contract where a third party (surety) agrees to be responsible for the debt or obligation of another party (principal) if the principal fails to meet their obligations.
Surety: The party who guarantees the performance of the principal's obligation under a surety bond, becoming liable if the principal fails to fulfill their obligations.
Therapeutic Gazette: A pioneering medical journal founded in 1884 in Detroit, Michigan, dedicated to advancing medical knowledge and practices.
Therapeutics: The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease and the promotion of health.
Ticket Stub: A small piece of paper or card issued as a voucher for admission to an event, valued for its association with cultural and sporting events.
Trade Card: A small card used by businesses to advertise services or products, often collectible for their historic graphical representations.
United States Revenue Society: An organization comprised of collectors and scholars interested in the study and collection of U.S. revenue stamps, focusing on their history, varieties, and significance in U.S. fiscal policy.